Monday, March 11, 2013

What was happening in the year ?


Sometimes, I have difficulty putting my ancestors into the proper historical context.  I thought it  might be fun to put our main ancestors alongside a few of the interesting things that happened that year in the world (Source of the majority of historical information is from  I'll complete this post gradually, beginning with years that actually connect to one of our ancestors (listed in red).

Samuel Gibbs Leatherman is born.
Jan. 9th: British Prime Minister William Pitt introduces income tax to raise funds for the war against Napoleon.
Jan. 21st: Edward Jemer's smallpox vaccination is introduced.
Jan. 25th: First U.S. patent for a seeding machine, Eliakim Spooner, Vermont.
Feb. 13th: First U.S. law regulating insurance passed, by Massachusetts.
Feb. 15th: First U.S. printed ballots authorized, Pennsylvania.
Feb. 25th: First Federal forestry registration authorizes purchase of timber land.
March 2nd: Congress standardizes U.S. weights and measures.
March 28th: New York State abolished slavery.
April 16th: Napoleonic Wars - The battle of Mount Tabor.
July 15th: The Rosetta Stone is found by French Captain Pierre-Francois Boischard during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign.
Aug. 13th: English fleet under lord Seymour overthrows Suriname.
Sept. 1st: Bank of Manhattan company (forerunner of Chase Manhattan) opens in New York City.
Nov. 9th: Napoleon becomes dictator (First Counsel) of France.
Dec. 10th: Metric system is established in France.
Dec. 18th: George Washington's body is interred at Mount Vernon.

Dutch East Indies Company dissolves.
March 14th: Pope Pius VII crowned.
March 17th: English warship "Charlotte" catches on fire - 700 people die.
March 20th: French army defeats Turks at Helipolis, Turkey and advance to Cairo.
April 2nd: First performance of Beethoven's 1st Symphony in C.
April 24th: Library of Congress is established with $ 5, 000 allocation.
May 7th: Indiana Territory organized.
May 14th: "MacBeth" premiers in Weimar.
May 15th: King George III survives a second assassination attempt.
July 8th: First smallpox vaccine shot given.
July 9th: Mount Vernon Gardens becomes site of first summer theater in U.S.
Sept. 5th: Malta is conquered by Great Britian.
Oct. 1st: Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.
Nov. 1st: John Adams is the first President to live in the White House.
Nov. 17th: Congress holds first session in Washington in an incompleted capitol bldg.
Dec. 12th: Washington D.C. is established as the capitol of the United States.

William Henry Duty is born.
Jan.  1st: The Irish Parliment votes to join the kingdom of Great Britain, forming The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Jan. 1st: Dwarf planet Ceres discovered.
Jan. 20th: John Marshall appointed U.S. Chief Justice.
Feb. 17th: House breaks electoral college tie, chooses Jefferson over Burr.
Feb. 27th: Washington D.C. placed under Congressional jurisdiction.
March 4th: First President inaugurated in Washington D.C. (Thomas Jefferson).
May 7th: Massachusetts enacts first state voter registration law.
March 10th: First census in Great Britain.
April 2nd: Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Copenhagen - The British destroy the Danish fleet.
May 10th: First Barbary War: The Barbary pirates of Tripili declare war on the U.S.
May 16th: William H. Seward's birthday, U.S. Secretary of State (bought Alaska at 2 cents per acre).
June 1st: Brigham Young's birthday (painter/ religious leader for Mormon church/ polygamist).
June 14th: Benedict Arnold dies in London (Revolutionary War General).
October 7th: Adolf Muller's birthday, composer.
Nov. 16th: First edition of New York Evening Post.



Feb. 7th: John Deere is born (pioneer manufacturer of agricultural implements).
Feb. 12th: Immanuel Kant dies (German philosopher).
Feb. 15th: New Jersey becomes the last Northern state to abolish slavery.
Feb. 21st: The first locomotive, Richard Trevithick's, runs for first time, in Wales.
Feb. 23rd: Conspirators against Napolean, for restoration of Louis XVIII.
Feb. 25th: Jefferson nominated for President of U.S. at Democratic-Repulican caucus.
March 14th: Johann Strauss is born (Viennese violinist/ composer).
March 17th: Friedrich Schiller's play "Wilhelm Tell" premiers.
March 26th: Congress orders removal of Indians east of Mississippi to Louisiana.
March 26th: Territory of Orleans organizes in Louisiana Purchase.
March 29th: Thousands of whites massacred in Haiti.
April 5th: High Possil meteorite: The first recorded meteorite in Scotland falls in Possil.
May 14th: Lewis & Clark set out from St. Louis for Pacific Coast.
May 16th: Senate & Tribune declare Napolean leader of France.
May 17th: Lewis & Clark begin exploration of Louisiana Purchase.
May 18th: Napolean Bonaparte proclaimed Emperor of France.
May 21st: Lewis & Clark expedition begins.
June 15th: 12th Amendment ratified: deals with the manner of choosing the President.
July 7th: Nathaniel Hawthorne is born (Author: Scarlet Letter; Anne of Green Gables).
July 11th: Vice-President of U.S., Aaron Burr, mortally wounds former Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton in a duel.  Hamilton died on July 12th.
Sept. 25th: 12th Amendment to U.S. Constitution regulating judicial power.
Oct. 2nd: England mobilizes to protect against French invasion.
Oct. 9th: Hobart, Tasmania founded.
Nov. 23rd: Franklin Pierce is born (14th U.S. President).
Nov. 30th: Impeachment trial of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase begins.
Dec. 2nd: Napoleon Bonaparte crowned emperor of France in Paris.
Dec. 5: Thomas Jefferson re-elected U.S. President.  George Clinton is Vice-President.






Hellen (Koonce) Leatherman is born.
Jan. 10th: The French church annuls the marriage of Napoleon I and Josephine.
Feb. 22nd: Frederic F. Chopin's is born (Polish/ French pianist/ composer).
March 6th: Illinois passes first state vaccination legislation in the U.S.
April 27th: Beethoven composes his famous piano piece, Fur Elise.
May 25th: The Primera Junta (local government) is established in Argentina.
June 23rd: John Jacob Astor organizes Pacific Fur Company (Astoria, Oregon).
July 4th: Phineas Taylor Barnum is born (circus magnate).
Oct. 27th: U.S. annexes West Florida from Spain.
Dec. 10th: First International boxing championship.




Nancy Ann (Jones) Duty is born (possibly).
Feb. 1st: Volcano Mayon on Luzon Philippines erupts, killing 1, 200 people.
Feb. 10th: Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Champaubert.
Feb. 11th: Norway's Independence proclaimed.
Feb. 27th: Ludwig von Beethoven's 8th Symphony in F, premieres.
March 7th: Napoleon I of France wins the Battle of Craonne.
March 27th: Battle at Horseshoe Bend: General Andrew Jackson defeats the Red Sticks, part of the Creek Indian tribe near Dadeville, Alabama.
March 30th: Napoleonic Wars: Sixth Coalition forces March into Paris after defeating Napoleon.
March 30th: Murat issues the Rimini Declaration which would later inspire Italian unification.
March 31st: Forces allied against Napoleon capture Paris.
April 4th: Napoleon abdicates for the first time.
April 11 (14th?): First abdication of France by Napoleon; he is exiled to Elba.
May 5th: British attack Ft. Ontario, Oswego, New York.
May 6th: George Joseph Vogler (composer) dies at age 64.
May 29th: Josephine, empress of France (1804-14) dies.
May 30th: Napoleonic Wars: War of the Sixth Coalition - The Treaty of Paris (1814) is signed, returning French borders to their 1792 extent.
July 3rd: Americans capture Fort Erie Canada.
July 5th: Americans defeat British and Canadians at Chippewa, Ontario.
July 7th: Walter Scott's Waverley is published.
July 19th: Samuel Colt is born (inventor of Colt 6 shot Revolver; Industrialist).
July 25th: Americans defeat British at Battle of Niagra Falls (Lundys Lane).
July 25th: George Stephenson introduced the first steam locomotive.
Aug. 13th: Treaty of London-Netherland stops transporting slaves.
Aug. 24th: British forces capture Washington D.C. and burned down many landmarks.
Aug. 25th: British forces destroy the Library of Congress, containing 3, 000 books.
Sept. 11th: Battle of Lake Champlain, New York: American Navy defeats British.
Sept. 12th: Battle of North Point fought near Baltimore during War of 1812.
Sept. 14th: Francis Scott Key inspired to write "Star-Spangled Banner".
Sept. 21st: "Star-Spangled Banner" published as a poem.
Oct. 1st: Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to re-draw the Europe political map after the defeat of Napoleon the previous spring. 
Oct. 23rd: First plastic surgery performed (England).
Oct. 29th: "Demologos", the first steam-powered warship, is launched.
Nov. 6th: Adolphe Sax (Belgium musician/ inventor of the saxophone) is born.
Nov. 28th: The Times in London is for the first time printed by automatic steam powered presses built by the German inventors Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Friedrich Bauer, signaling the beginning of the availability of newspapers to a mass audience.
Dec. 24th: Treaty of Ghent (end of the US - Britain War of 1812) signed.







Mary L. (           ) Swan is born.
Elihugh B. Swan is born.
Jan. 17th: Mexico permits Moses Austin and 300 families to settle in Texas.
Feb. 22nd: Spain sells (east) Florida to United States for $ 5 million.
Feb. 23rd: John Keats, Romantic poet, dies of T.B. at age 25 in Rome.
Feb. 24th: Mexico gains independence from Spain.
March 5th: Monroe is the first President inaugurated on March 5th because 4th was Sunday.
March 14th: African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church founded (New York).
April 10th: Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople is hanged by the Turks from the main gate of the Patriarchate and his body is thrown into the Bosphorus.
May 5th: French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (1799-1815) dies in exile on the island of Saint Helena.
May 8th: Greek War of Independence: The Greeks defeat the Turks in Gravia.
May 30th: James Boyd patents Rubber Fire Hose.
May 31st: Cathedral of Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary, first US Catholic cathedral, is dedicated in Baltimore.
July 17th: Spain cedes Florida to the US.
Aug. 4th: First edition of Saturday Evening Post (publishes until 1969).
Aug. 10th: Missouri admitted as 24th US state.
Aug. 23rd: Mexico declares independence.
Sept. 1st: First colonies along the Santa Fe Trail.
Sept. 23rd: Fall of Tripolitsa, Greece, massacre of 30, 000 Turks.
Sept. 27th: Revolutionary forces occupy Mexico City as Spanish withdraw.
Oct. 11th: George Williams, England, founder YMCA is born.
Nov. 11th: Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky, Russia, novelist (Crime & Punishment) is born.
Dec. 17th: Kentucky abolishes debtors prisons.



Elizabeth (Woods) Caldwell is born.
Feb. 4th: J.W. Goodrich introduces rubber galoshes to public.
Feb. 10th: Simon Bolivar named dictator by the Congress of Peru.
March 2nd: Interstate commerce comes under federal control.
March 11th: U.S. War department creates the Bureau of Indian Affair.
April 19th: George Gorden Noel "Lord" Byron, poet died at age 36.
May 7th: Beethoven's 9th (Chorale) Symphony, premieres in Vienna.
May 26th: Brazil is recognized by the U.S.
June 8th: Washing machine is patented by Noah Cushing of Quebec.
June 17th: Bureau of Indian Affairs is established.
June 24th: Harrisburg Pennsylvanian newspaper publishes results of first public opinion poll.  Clear lead for Andrew Jackson.
Aug. 15th: Freed American slaves form country of Liberia.
Oct. 4th: Mexico becomes a republic.
Oct. 23rd: First steam locomotive is introduced.
Nov. 2nd: Popular presidential vote is first recorded; Jackson beats John Quincy Adams.
Nov. 16th: New York City's  Fifth Avenue opens for business.
Nov. 19th: Storm causes St. Petersburg flood, killing 10, 000.
Nov. 21st: First Jewish Reform congregation forms, Charleston, South Carolina.

James Caldwell is born.
Jan. 8th: Eli Whitney, American inventor, dies (He was born in 1765).
Jan. 19th: Ezra Daggett & nephew Thomas Kensett patent food storage in tin cans.
Jan. 27th: U.S. Congress approves Indian Territory (in what is present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the "Trail of Tears".
Feb. 9th: House of Representatives  elects John Quincy Adams 6th US president.
Feb. 12th: Creek Indian treaty signed.  Tribal chiefs  agree to turn over all their land in Georgia to the government and migrate west by Sept. 1, 1826.
March 4th: John Quincy Adams inaugrated as 6th president.
April 10th: First hotel in Hawaii opens.
May 20th: Charles X becomes King of France.
June 14th: Pierre Charles L'Enfant, French architect and architect for Washington D.C. layout, dies at 70.
Sept. 27th: Railroad transportation is born with 1st track (Stockton-Darlington).
Oct. 25th: Erie Canal opens, linking Great Lakes and Atlantic Ocean.
Nov. 26th: First college fraternity founded (Kappa Alpha at Union College, New York).
Nov. 29th: First Italian opera in U.S., "Barber of Seville" premieres in New York City.
Dec. 27th: First public railroad using steam locomotive completed in England.



William McCall Blair is born.
April 14th: First edition of Webster's American Dictionary published.
April 16th: Francisco Goya, Spanish painter/ cartoonist, dies at age 82.
April 30th: Shaka Zulu, the great Zulu king, was killed.
President: John Quincy Adams.  Andrew Jackson elected President on Dec. 3rd.
Dec. 19th: South Carolina declares right of states to nullify federal laws.
Dec. 28th: 6.8 earthquake kills 30, 000 people in Echigo, Japan.

Mary Ann (Kirby) Blair is born.
Feb. 26th: Levi Strauss, German-born clothing designer is born.
March 4th: Andrew Jackson inaugurated as 7th President of the United States.  (Unruly crowd mobs White House during his inaugural ball).
April 10th: William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, is born.
April 15th: Mary Harris Thompson, first American woman surgeon, is born.
May 8th: Louis Moreau Gottschalk, first internationally recognized U.S. pianist, is born.
June 16th: Geronimo, Apache leader, is born.
June 19th: Sir Robert Peel founded London Metropolitan Police ("Bobbies").
June 27th: James Smithson dies.  His will established the Smithsonian Institution.
July 4th: Cornerstone laid for first  U.S. Mint (Chestnut & Juniper streets, Phiadelphia).
July 23rd: William Austin Burt patents "typographer" (typewriter).
Aug. 25th: Pres. Jackson makes an offer to buy Texas, but Mexican government refuses.
Aug. 31st: Opera "Guillaume Tell" is produced (Paris).
Sept. 14th: Peace of Adrianopel: ends the Russian-Turkish War.
Sept. 25th: Failed assassination attempt on Simon Bolivar.
Sept. 29th: London's Metropolitan Police force goes on duty (Scotland Yard).
Oct. 16th: Tremont Hotel, the first U.S. modern hotel opens in Boston.
Dec. 14th: John Mercer Langston, first black to hold U.S. political office, is born.
Dec. 21st: First stone arch railroad bridge in United States dedicated in Baltimore.






Joseph Griffin is born.
Jan. 7th: HMS Beagle anchors off Chonos Archipelago.
Jan. 8th: The United States national debt is "0" for the first and only time.
Feb. 20th: Concepcion, Chile is destroyed by an earthquake; 5, 000 people die
Feb. 22nd: HMS Beagle/ Charles Darwin leave Valdivia Chile.
March 3rd: Congress authorizes a U.S. Mint at New Orleans, Louisiana.
March 4th: HMS Beagle moves into Bay of Concepcion.
March 7th: HMS Beagle returns from Concepcion to Valparaiso.
March 11th: HMS Beagle anchors off Valparaiso, Chile.
March 13th: Charles Darwin departs Valparaiso for Andes crossing.
March 18th: Charles Darwin departs Santiago, Chile on his way to Portillo Pass.
March 21st: Charles Darwin & Mariano Gonzales meet at Portillo Pass.
March 23rd: Charles Darwin reaches Los Arenales, in the Andes.
April 10th: Charles Darwin returns to Santiago, Chile.
April 18th: William Lamb Lord Melbourne forms British government.
May 12th: Charles Darwin visits copper mines in North Chile.
May 14th: Charles Darwin reaches Coquimbo in Northern Chile.
June 2nd: P.T. Barnum & his circus begin first tour of United States.
June 19th: New Orleans gives U.S. government Jackson Square to be used as a mint.
July 6th: John Marshall, Chief Justice of the U.S., dies.
July 8th: Liberty Bell cracks (again).
July 26th: First sugar cane plantation is started in Hawaii.
Aug. 17th: Solymon Merrick patents the wrench.
Aug. 18th: Last Pottawatomie Indians leave Chicago.
Aug. 25th: Ann Rutledge, said to be Lincoln's true love, dies in Illinois at age 22.
Aug. 30th: Melbourne, Australia is founded.
Sept. 15th: HMS Beagle/ Charles Darwin reach Galapagos Islands.
Sept. 17th: Charles Darwin lands on Chatham Galapagos - archipelago.
Sept. 23rd: HMS Beagle sails to Charles Island in Galapagos archipelego.
Oct. 8th: HMS Beagle/ Charles Darwin reach James Island, Galapagos archipelego.
Oct. 20th: HMS Beagle leaves Galapagos Archipelago/ sails to Tahiti.
Nov. 2nd: Second Seminole War begins in Osceola.
Nov. 15th: HMS Beagle/ Charles Darwin reach Tahiti.
Nov. 16th: Charles Darwin's voyage published in Cambridge Philopsophical Society.
Nov. 23rd: Henry Burden patents Horseshoe manufacturing  machine in Troy, New York.
Nov. 24th: Texas Rangers, mounted police force, is authorized by the Texas Provisional Government.
Nov. 25th: Andrew Carnegie, Scottish/ U.S. industrialist/ philanthropist, is born.
Nov. 26th: HMS Beagle leaves sTahiti for New Zealand.
Nov. 30th: Mark Twain (Samuel L. Clemens), author of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, is born.
Dec. 1st: Hans Christian Anderson publishes his first book of fairy tales.
Dec. 3rd: First U.S. mutual fire insurance company issues first policy in Rhode Island.
Dec. 5-10th: Assault on Mexican-held San Antonio by Texan rebels.
Dec. 16th: Fire consumes over 600 buildings in  New York City.
Dec. 19th: HMS Beagle/ Charles Darwin approaches New Zealand.
Dec. 21st: HMS Beagle sails into Bay of Islands (New Zealand).
Dec. 25th: Charles Darwin' s company celebrates Christmas in Pahia, New Zealand.
Dec. 29th: The Treaty of New Echota is signed, ceding all the lands of the Cherokee east of the Mississippi River to the United States.
Dec. 30th: After gold discovery in Georgia, Cherokees are forced to move across the Mississippi river.
Dec. 30th: HMS Beagle/ Charles Darwin sails from New Zealand to Sydney.


James Oscar Whatley is born.
Jan. 22nd: Earthquake in southern Syria kills thousands.
Jan. 26th: Michigan is admitted at the 26th U.S. state.
Feb. 8th: The first Vice President is chosen by the Senate, Richard Johnson (Van Buren administration).
Feb. 13th: Riot in New York due to a combination of poverty and an increase in the cost of flour.
Feb. 25th: First U.S. electric printing press is patented by Thomas Davenport.
March 3rd: Congress increases the Supreme Court membership from 7 to 9.
March 4th: Martin Van Buren is inaugurated at the 8th President of the U.S.
March 4th: Chicago becomes incorporated as a city.
March 24th: Canada gives black citizens the right to vote.
May 10th: The Panic of 1837: New York City banks fail, and unemployment reaches record levels.
May 25th: The Patriots of Lower Canada (Quebec) rebel against the British for freedom.
May 27th: "Wild Bill" Hickok (James Butler), cowboy/ scout, is born.
May 31st: The Astor Hotel opens in New York City; it later became the Waldorf-Astoria.
June 11th: The Broad Steet Riot occurs in Boston, fueled by ethnic tensions between English-Americans and Irish-Americans.
June 17th: Charles Goodyear obtains his first rubber patent.
June 20th: Queen Victoria at 18 years old ascends the British throne following the death of uncle King William IV. Ruled for 63 years ending in 1901.
July 4th: The Grand Junction Railway, the world's first long-distance railway, opens between Birmingham and Liverpool.
July 13th: Queen Victoria is the first monarch to live in the present Buckingham Palace.
Aug. 28th: Pharmacists John Lea & William Perrins manufactures Worcester Sauce.
Sept. 21st: Charles Tiffany founded his jewelry and china stores.
Oct. 9th: Meeting at the U.S. Naval Academy establishes the U.S. Naval Institute.
Oct. 31st: Collision of the river boat Monmouth & Tremont on the Mississippi river; 300 people die.
Nov. 8th: The first U.S. college founded for women opens (Mount Holyoke Seminary is Massachusetts).





Mary Jane (Duty) Whatley is born (possibly). (1843 & 1845 also possible).
Jan. 1st: First illustrated weekly magazine in U.S. publishes first issue, New York City.
Jan. 2nd: First U.S. wire suspension bridge for general traffic opens in Pennsylvania.
Feb. 15th: First adhesive postage stamps in U.S. (private delivery company), New York City.
Feb. 21st: First known sewing machine patented in U.S., John Greenough, in Washington D.C.
March 3rd: First child labor law regulating working hours passed in Massachusetts.
March 5th: Over 500 Mexican troops led by Rafael Vasquez invade Texas, briefly occupy San Antonio and then head back to the Rio Grande.
March 30th: Ether is used as an anaesthetic for the first time  by Dr. Crawford Long in Georgia.
May 14th: Illustrated London News, the world's first illustrated weekly newspaper, begins publication.
Aug. 14th: Seminole War ends; Indians are removed from Florida to Oklahoma.
Aug. 21st: The city of Hobart, Tasmania, is founded.
Aug. 29th: Great Britain and China sign the Treaty of Nanking, which ends the Opium war.
Oct. 15th: Karl Marx becomes the editor-in-chief of Rheinische Zeitung.
Nov. 4th: Abraham Lincoln (later the 16th U.S. President) marries Mary Todd in Spingfield.
Nov. 22nd: Mount St. Helens erupts in the state of Washington.
Nov. 26th: The University of Notre Dame is founded.
Dec. 7th: New York Philharmonic's first concert.

Martin Van Buren Digby is born.
Mary Jane (Duty) Whatley is born (possibly). (1842 & 1845 also possible).
Jan. 10th: American outlaw, Frank James, is born (Died in 1915).
Jan. 11th: Francis Scott Key, composer of the Star Spangled Banner, dies at age 63.
Feb. 6th: The first minstrel show in the U.S., The Virginia Minstrels, opens (Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City).
March 3rd: Congress appropriates $ 30, 000 "to test the practicability of establishing a system of electro-magnetic telegraphs" by the U.S.
May 18th: United Free Church of Scotland forms.
May 22nd: First wagon train, 1000 + depart Independence, Missouri for Oregon.
May 28th: Noah Webster, lexicographer (Webster's Dictionary), dies at 84.
June 1st: Sojourner Truth leaves New York to begin her career as an anti-slavery activist.
July 2nd: An alligator falls from the sky onto Anson street during a severe storm in Charleston, South Carolina (Note: One theory suggests that a waterspout may have been involved).
July 5th: A committee of 9 is appointed to establish civil government in the Oregon country.
July 12th: Mormon leader Joseph Smith says that God approves of polygamy.
July 19th: Brunel's steamship, the SS Great Britain, is launched, becoming the first ocean-going craft with an iron hull or screw propeller and also becoming the largest vessel afloat in the world.
Aug. 26th: Charles Thurber patents a typewriter.
Nov. 13th: Mt. Ranier in Washington state erupts.
Dec. 4th: Manila paper (made from sails, canvas, & rope) is patented in Mass.
Dec. 13th: "A Christmas Carol" by Charles Dickens is published; 6, 000 copies are sold.
Dec. 25th: First theatre matinee (Olympic Theatre in New York City).

Grandison Royston Wallace is born (according to tombstone).
Charlotte Jane (Leatherman) Wallace is born.
Feb. 17th: A. Montgomery Ward, founder mail-order business (Montgomery Ward), is born.
Feb. 28th: Abel P. Upshur (Secretary of State) & Thommas W. Gilmer (Navy Secretary) die in explosion on the USS Princeton.
April 12th: Texan envoys sign Treaty of Annexation with the United States.
May 1st: Whig convention nominates Henry Clay as presidential candidate.
May 2nd: Elijah McCoy, black inventor who held over 50 patents, is born.
May 24th: Samuel Morse taps out "What hath God wrought" (1st telegraph message).
May 25th: First telegraphed news dispatch is published in Baltimore Patriot.
June 6th: Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) forms in London.
June 15th: Goodyear patents vulcanization of rubber.
June 27th: Joseph Smith Jr., founder/ leader of the Mormon church is shot and killed by a mob at age 38.
July 3rd: The last pair of Great Auks is killed.
July 29th: Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, composer, dies at age 53.
July 30th: First U.S. yacht club is organized (New York Yacht Club).
Aug. 8th: Brigham Young is chosen as the head of the Mormon church following Joseph Smith's death.
Sept. 28th: Pyotr Aleksandrovich Tolstoy, Russian general & statesman, dies.
Oct. 11th: Henry John Heinz, who founded prepared foods company (Heinz - 57 varieties), is born.  (died in 1919).
Dec. 4th: James K. Polk is elected 11th President of the United States.
Dec. 11th: First dental use of nitrous oxide, Hartford, Conneticut.

John Jefferson House is born.
Susannah Elizabeth (Edwards) Griffin is born.
Grandison Royston Wallace is born (according to death certificate).
Mary Jane (Duty) Whatley is born (possibly). (1842 & 1843 also possible).
Jan. 10th: Poets Elizabeth Barrett & Robert Browning begin corresponding.
Jan. 29th: Edgar Allen Poe's "Raven" first published in New York City.
March 1st: President Tyler signs a resolution annexing the Republic of Texas.
May 3rd: The Senate overrides a Presidential veto for the first time.
March 3rd: Florida becomes the 27th US state.
March 4th: President: Tyler.  James K. Polk was inaugurated as 11th President.
March 17th: The rubber band is patented.
March 18th: John Chapman (Johnny Appleseed) dies in Allen county, Indiana.
April 2nd: First photo taken of the Sun.
April 10th: More than 1, 000 buildings damaged by fire in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
May 3rd: First black lawyer is admitted to the bar in Mass.
June 4th: Mexican/ US war begins.
June 8th: Andrew Jackson, 7th US President, dies at age 78.
July 4th: Henry David Thoreau moves into his shack on Walden Pond.
July 4th: Texas Congress votes for annexation to US.
Sept. 23rd: First baseball team, the New York Knickerbockers, organize/ adopt rule code.
Oct. 10th: Naval School (now called the US Naval Academy) opens at Annapolis.
Oct. 13th: Texas ratifies a state constitution.
Nov. 4th: First nationally observed uniform election day in US.
Dec. 2nd: Manifest Destiny: US President James K. Polk announces to Congress that the United States should aggressively expand into the West.
Dec. 28th: Texas admitted as the 28th US state.




Samantha Jane (Arnold) House is born.
Jan. 23rd: Mrs. Elizabeth Blackwell becomes 1st woman physician in U.S.
Jan. 23rd: Patent granted for an envelope-making  machine.
Feb. 14th: In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes 1st serving US President to have his photograph taken (by Matthew Brady).
Feb. 18th: 1st regular steamboat service to California begins (or 2/ 28).
Feb. 28th: 1st boat load of gold rush prospectors arrives in San Francisco from east coast.
March 3rd: Home Depot (Interior dept.) forms.
March 3rd: Territory of Minnesota organizes.
March 3rd: US Dept. of the Interior is established by Congress.
March 4th: US had no President (Polk's term ends on a Sunday, Taylor couldn't be sworn-in, Sen. David Atchison (pres. pro tem) term ended March 3rd.
March 5th: Zachary Taylor sworn in as 12th President of the US.
March 10th: Abraham Lincoln applies for a patent; the only US President to do so.
March 27th: Joseph Couch patents steam-powered percussion rock drill.
April 10th: Safety pin patented by Walter Hunt (NYC); sold rights for $ 400.
April 21st: Oskar Hertwig, Germany, embryologist is born.  He discovered fertilization.
May 22nd: Abraham Lincoln patents a buoying device.
May 29th: Abraham Lincoln says, "You can fool some of the  people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you can not fool all of the people all of the time".
June 12th: Gas mask patented by Lewis Haslett (Louisville, Kentucky).
June 15th: James Knox Polk, 11th President (1845 - 1849) dies in Nashville, Tennessee at age 53.
July 2nd: Garibaldi in Rome begins hunger strike.
July 3rd: The French entered Rome in order to restore Pope Pius IX to power.  This would prove a major obstacle to Italian unification.
July 12th: Dolley Madison, 4th First Lady of the US, dies. (born in 1768).
July 31st: Benjamin Chambers patents breech loading cannon.
Aug. 19th: NY Herald reports gold discovery in California.
Aug. 22nd: The first air raid in history.  Austria launches pilotless balloons against the Italian city of Venice.
Sept. 13th: 1st US prize fight fatality (Tom McCoy).
Sept. 17th: Harriet Tubman 1st escapes slavery in Maryland with two of her brothers.
Sept. 19th: 1st commercial laundry established in Oaklan, California.
Sept. 29th: 1st passenger train service to Peekskill NY (New Haven Railroad).
Oct. 3rd: American author Edgar Allan Poe is found delirious in a gutter in Baltimore, Maryland under mysterious circumstances; it is the last time he is seen in public before his death.  He died on Oct. 7th at age 40.
Oct. 17th: Frederic F. Chopin, Polish/ French pianist/ composer, died at age 39.
Nov. 15th: First US poultry show opens in Boston.
Nov. 16th: A Russian court sentences Fyodor Dostoevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to a radical intellectual group; his sentence is later commuted to hard labor.
Dec. 14th: 1st chamber music group in US gives their 1st concert (Boston).
Dec. 18th: William Bond obtains 1st photograph of Moon through a telescope.
Dec. 21st: 1st US skating club formed (Philadelphia).
Dec. 22nd: The execution of Fyodor Dstoevsky is called off at the last second
Dec. 28th: M. Jolly-Bellin discovers dry-cleaning.  He accidentally upset lamp containing turpentine and oil on his clothing and sees a cleaning effect.

Hilry Swan is born.
Jan. 20th: "Investigator", the first ship to sail the Northwest Passage leaves England.
Jan. 29th: Henry Clay introduces a compromise bill on slavery to the US Senate.
March 7th: Daniel Webster endorses The Compromise of 1850.
March 11th: The first female medical school opens (The Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania).
March 16th: Nathaniel Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter is published.
March 18th: Henry Wells & William Fargo forms American Express in Buffalo.
April 4th: The city of Los Angeles is incorporated.
April 15th: The city of San Francisco is incorporated.
June 6th: Levi Strauss makes his first pair of bluejeans.
July 2nd: The gas mask with a breathing aparatus is patented by Benjamin Lane.
July 10th: President: Millard Fillmore replaces Taylor.
July 14th: First public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration.
July 17th: Harvard observatory takes the first photograph of a star (Vega).
July 25th: Gold is discovered in Oregon on the Rogue River.
Aug. 23rd: First National Women's Right Convention convenes in Worcester, Mass.
Aug. 30th: Honolulu, Hawaii becomes a city.
Sept. 9th: Territories of New Mexico and Utah are created.
Sept. 9th: California is admitted at the 31st US state.
Sept. 17th: Great fire in San Francisco occurs.
Sept. 18th: Congress passes Fugitive Slave Law as part of The Compromise of 1850.
Sept. 24th: Papal Bull issued on September 24th - established Catholic Church hierarchy in England.

Elmira Tennessee (Barnes) Digby is born.
Jan. 31st: Gail Borden announces invention of evaporated milk.
March 3rd: Congress authorizes smallest US silver coin (3 cent piece).
March 25th: Yosemite Valley discovered in California.
May 3-4: Most of San Francisco destroyed in first major fire; 30 people die.
May 6th: Dr. John Gorrie patents a "refrigeration machine".
May 6th: Linus Yale patents Yale-lock.
May 29th: Sojourner Truth addresses 1st Black Women's Rights Convention (Akron).
June 2nd: 1st US alcohol prohibition law enacted (Maine).
June 3rd: 1st baseball uniforms worn.  NY Knickerbockers wear straw hat, white shirt & blue long trousers.
June 15th: Jacob Fussell, Baltimore dairyman, sets up 1st ice-cream factory.
June 22nd: Fire destroys part of San Francisco.
July 13th: John F. Loudon discovers tin on East Indian Island of Billiton.







Robert Thomas Blair is born.
January 9th: Anson Jones, the last President of the Republic of Texas, commits suicide.
January 25th: Mendelssohn's "Wedding March" is first played at the wedding of Queen Victoria's daughter Princess Victoria, to crown prince of Prussia.
February 21st: Edwin T. Holmes installs first electric burglar alarm (Boston, Mass.).
March 9th: Albert Potts of Philadelphia patents the street mailbox.
March 23rd: Streetcar patented (E.A. Gardner of Philadelphia).
March 30th: Pencil with attached eraser is patented (Hyman I. Lipman of Philadelphia).
April 10th: The Big Ben, a 13.76 tonne bell is recast in the Tower of Westminster.
April 12th: First U.S. billiards championship (Michael J. Phelan wins in Detroit).
May 8th: John Brown holds antislavery convention.
May 11th: Minnesota admitted at 32nd US state.
May 30th: Hudson's Bay Company rights to Vancouver Island is revoked.
June 2nd: Donati Comet is first seen and named after it's discoverer.
June 16th: Abraham Lincoln says, "A house divided against itself cannot stand".
June 29th: George Washington Goethalis, engineer, is born (built Panama Canal).
June 29th: Great fire in London harbor.
July 1st: The joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace's papers on evolution to the Linnean Society.
July 6th: Lyman Blake patents shoe manufacturing machine.
July 20th: Fee is first charged to see a baseball game (50 cents) (NY beats Bkin 22 - 18).
July 28th: First use of fingerprints as a means of identification is made by Sir William James Herschel of the Indian Civil Service in India.
July 28th: Nadar takes the first airborne photo (in a balloon).
August 2nd: First US mailboxes installed in Boston and NYC streets.
August 5th: Cyrus W. Field completes the first transatlantic telegraph cable.
August 11th: First ascent of the Eiger.
August 15th: Regular mail to the Pacific coast begins.
August 21st: First Lincoln-Douglas debate (Illinois).
August 26th: First news dispatch by telegraph.
September 1st: First transatlantic cable fails after less than one month.
September 8th: Lincoln makes a speech about when you can fool people.
September 10th: John Holden hits first recorded home run (Bkin vs NY).
September 16th: First overland mail for California.
September 17th: Dred Scott, US slave (REV-decision Supreme Court), dies.
September 28th: Donati's comet becomes the first to be photographed.
October 21st: In Paris, the Can-Can dance is first performed.
October 26th: Hamilton Smith patents the rotary washing machine.
October 28th: Macy's Department store opens in New York City.
November 9th: First performance of the New York Symphony Orchestra.

Texanna (Caldwell) Swan is born.
Jan 5th - 1st steamboat sails, Red River
Jan. 5th: DeWitt B. Brace, inventor of spectrophotometer, is born.
Jan. 9th: Carrie Chapman Catt, Ripon, Wisconsin, American women's suffrage leader and founder (League of Women Voters), is born.
Jan 22nd - Brahms' 1st piano concerto (in D minor) premieres, Hanover
Feb 4th - The Codex Sinaiticus is discovered in Egypt.
Feb 14th - Oregon admitted as 33rd state
Feb 25th - 1st use of "insanity plea" to prove innocence
Feb. 26th: Ferdinand Lukas Schubert, composer, dies at age 64.
Feb 28th - Arkansas legislature requires free blacks to choose exile or slavery
Mar 21st - Zoological Society of Philadelphia, 1st in US, incorporated
Mar 26th - 1st sighting of Vulcan, a planet thought to orbit inside Mercury
Apr 4th - Bryant's Minstrels debut "Dixie" in New York City in the finale of a blackface minstrel show.
Apr. 7th: Walter Camp, Ct., father of American football (Yale), is born.
Apr 8th - Edmund Husserl, Germany, philosopher (founded Phenomenology), is born.
Apr 25th - Ground broken for Suez Canal
Apr 26th - Dan Sickles is acquitted of murder on grounds of temporary insanity 1st time this defense is successfully used.
Apr 30th - Charles Dickens' "A Tale Of Two Cities" is first published in literary periodical All the Year Round, continues in weekly installments until Nov 26
May 17th - Australian Rules Football first 'laws of the game' published
May 22nd - Arthur Conan Doyle, UK, author brought Sherlock Holmes to life twice, is born.
May 31st - Phila A's organize to play "town ball" became baseball 20 years later
Jun 12th - Comstock Silver Lode in Nevada discovered
Jun 27th - Mildred J Hill, composer/musician (Happy Birthday To You), is born.
Jun 28th - 1st dog show held (Newcastle-on-Tyne, England)
Jun 30th - Charles Blondin is 1st to cross Niagara Falls on a tightrope
Jul 1st - 1st intercollegiate baseball game, Amherst beats Williams 66-32
Jul 1st - Balloon covers a record 809 miles over St Louis
Jul 5th - Capt N C Brooks discovers Midway Islands
Jul 12th - Paper bag manufacturing machine patents by William Goodale, Mass
Aug 2nd - Horace Mann, American educator and abolitionist (b. 1796), dies.
Aug 9th - Elevator patented
Aug 12th - Katharine Lee Bates, US, author (America the Beautiful), is born.
Aug 17th - 1st air mail (in a balloon) took off from Lafayette Ind
Aug 19th - Charles Comiskey, 1st basemen/manager (Chicago White Sox), is born.
Aug 27th - 1st successful oil well drilled, near Titusville, Penn by Edwin Drake
Aug 28th - A geomagnetic storm causes the Aurora Borealis to shine so brightly that it is seen clearly over parts of USA, Europe, and even as far afield as Japan.
Sep 1st - 1st Pullman sleeping car in service
Sep 1st - R C Carrington & R Hodgson make 1st observation of solar flare
Sep 2nd - Gas lighting introduced to Hawaii
Sep 16th - Lake Nyasa, which forms Malawi's boundary with Tanzania & Mozambique discovered by British explorer David Livingstone
Sep 20th - George Simpson patents electric range
Sep 29th - Great auroral display in US
Oct 16th - John Brown leads 21 in raid on federal arsenal, Harper's Ferry, Va
Nov 12th - Jules Leotard performs 1st Flying Trapeze circus act (Paris) He also designed garment that bears his name
Nov 24th - Charles Darwin publishes "On the Origin of Species"
Nov 26th - Last weekly installment of Charles Dickens' "A Tale Of Two Cities" is published in literary periodical All the Year Round
Nov 28th - Washington Irving, US author (Geoffrey Crayon, gent), dies
Dec 2nd - John Brown, US abolitionist (Harpers Ferry), hanged at 59
Dec 15th - GR Kirchoff describes chemical composition of Sun
Dec. 31st: Dutch colony in Dutch Indies counts 4, 800 slaves.


Mary Ann (Kirby) Blair dies.





Sallie (Whatley) Blair is born.






William Seaborn Digby is born.


Mattie Minerva (Wallace) Digby is born.


William Henry Duty dies.



Hellen (Koontz) Leatherman dies.




George Washington Griffin is born.


Mary Elizabeth (House) Griffin is born.



Samuel Gibbs Leatherman dies.

Herbert Orlando Blair is born.
Bertie Bell (Swan) Blair is born.

James Oscar Whatley dies.








Charlotte Jane (Leatherman) Wallace dies.


Nancy Ann (Jones) Duty dies.
Martin Van Buren Digby dies.


Levi Strauss, German-born clothing designer, dies.


William McCall Blair dies.
Russo-Japanes War begins (fight over Manchuria and Korea).
New York City subway opens.
U.S. begins work on the Panama Canal.
President: Theodore Roosevelt; Vice-President: none.
The London Symphony Orchestra is established.
Anton Chekhov introduces modern realism at the Moscow Art Theatre.
The "teddy bear" is first produced (named after President Theodore Roosevelt).
A telephone answering machine is invented.
The first flat-disk phonograph is introduced.

Joseph Griffin dies.



Geronimo, Apache leader, dies.










Samantha Jane (Arnold) House dies.

Hilry Swan dies.
Grandison Royston Wallace dies.
19th amendment ratified (Women's suffrage).
Treaty of Sevres dissolves the Ottoman Empire.
President: Woodrow Wilson; Vice-President: Thomas R. Marshall.
First commercial radio broadcast transmitted.
American chemist, William Draper Harkins, postulates the existence of a subatomic particle, the neutron, a heavy particle of no electric charge.
The Smithsonian Institution announces Robert Goddard's work with rockets.



Robert Glenn Blair is born.
Adolf Hitler spends 5 years in prison, where he writes Mein Kamph.
Earthquake destoys one third of Toyko.
President Warren G. Harding dies on August 2nd when returning from a trip to Alaska.
Vice-President: Calvin Coolidge.
The second Ku Klux Klan movement in U.S. History grows stirring widespread violence/ controversy.
The first television transmission tube is patented.
Harlem's "Cotton Club" opens and presents all -black performers to white-only audiences.
Whooping cough vaccine is developed.
"Truth serum" is developed.




Susannah Elizabeth (Edwards) Griffin dies.

John Jefferson House dies.



1931: (Starvation was a problem in America).
Wanda Jeannine (Digby) Blair is born.
Elmira Tennessee (Barnes) Digby dies.
New Delhi, planned capital of India, opens.
Ho Chi Minh is arrested in China by British officials.
British physicists build an atom smasher.
The comic strip "Dick Tracy" makes its debut.
Inventor Thomas Edison died at age 84.
Charles Lindbergh inaugurates the Pan Am flight service from Cuba to South America.
President: Herbert Hoover; Vice-President: Charles Curtis.
Miss America Pageant began in 1931.
Life Expectancy: 59.7 years.
Cost of a new home: $ 6, 796.00
Average income: $ 1, 858.00 per year
New car: $ 640.00
Movie ticket: 25 cents each
Gasoline: 10 cents per gallon.
U.S. postage stamp: 2 cents each.
Famous people born in 1931: James Earl Jones; James Dean; Barbara Walters; Robert Duvall; William Shatner; Larry Hagman.
Songs: "Dream a Little Dream of Me" by Wayne King; "I Got Rhythm" by Red Nichols.
Al Capone sentenced to 11 years for tax evasion.
Scottsboro boys trial begins.
"Star Spangled Banner" officially becomes the national anthem.
Empire State building is completed.




Robert Thomas Blair dies.

Mattie Minerva (Wallace) Digby dies.








Sallie (Whatley) Blair dies.



George Washington Griffin dies.

Texanna (Caldwell) Swan dies.




William Seaborn Digby dies.

William Lee Blair is born.
Joseph Stalin dies.
East Berliners rise up against Communist rule.
Korean armistice signed on July 27.
Moscow announces explosion of hydrogen bomb.
Tito becomes President of Yugoslavia.
President: Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower is inaugurated on January 20th.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed in Sing Sing prison.
Alleged Communist Charlie Chaplin leaves the United States.
New York Yankees beat the Brooklyn Dodgers 4 to 2 in the World Series.
The first issue of "TV Guide" hits the newstands.
Lucille Ball gives birth to Desi Arnaz Jr. on same day as fictional "Little Ricky" is born on "I Love Lucy" TVshow.
Playboy magazine hits the newstands with a nude picture of Marilyn Monroe on the cover.
Movies: "The Robe"; "From Here to Eternity"; "Shane"; and "Roman Holiday".
The double-helix structure of DNA is discovered.
Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay are the first to reach the top of Mount Everest on May 29th.
The first open heart surgery is performed sucessfully in Philadelphia.
Queen Mary dies.










Herbert Orlando Blair dies.
Bertie Bell (Swan) Blair dies.
Washington - to - Moscow "hot line" communication link opens to reduce risk of accidental war (cold war).
France and West Germany sign treaty of cooperation, ending 400 years of conflict.
Kenya achieves independence.
There are 15, 000 U.S. military advisers in South Vietnam.
Dr. Michael E. DeBakey implants artificial heart in human for first time in Houston, Texas hospital on April 21st.
U.S. Supreme Court rules that no locality may require recitation of the Lord's Prayer or Bible verses in public schools (June 17).
"March on Washington" civil rights rally held by 200, 000 blacks and whites in Washington D.C.  Martin Luther King delivers "I Have a Dream" speech on August 20th.
President Kennedy is shot and killed in Dallas, Texas.  Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President on same day (November 22).  Lee Harvey Oswald, accused Kennedy assassin, is shot and killed by Jack Ruby (Nov. 24; this was the first live telecast of  a murder).
Beatlemania hits the U.K.
The Rolling Stones emerge as the anti-Beatles.
The French Chef with Julia Child debuts on educational television.
Record of the Year: "I Left My Heart in San Francisco" by Tony Bennett.
Quasars are discovered by Marten Schmidt (U.S.).
The first liver transplant is performed.
The first commerical nuclear reactor goes online.
The sedative Valium is developed by Roche labs.
Robert Frost and Aldous Huxley die.







Cost of Living in 1970 (Source: Antenae TV websites):
     New house: $ 23, 450.00
     Average income: $ 9, 400.00
     New car: $ 3, 450.00
     Minimum wage: $ 2.10 per hour
     Movie ticket: $ .55
     Gasoline: 36 cents per gallon
     Postage stamp: 6 cents
     Sugar: 39 cents for 5 lbs.
     Milk: 62 cents per gallon
     Coffee: $ 1.90 per pound
     Eggs: 59 cents per dozen
     Bread: 25 cents











Mary Elizabeth (House) Griffin dies.
























Robert Glenn Blair dies.

Pearl (Griffin) Digby dies.















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